Whole-plant or full-spectrum extracts are considered to be the most therapeutically effective. In this form, CBD works in conjunction with other cannabinoids to produce what’s called the entourage effect: the result of numerous types of cannabinoids, each with a specific function, working together. You’ll sometimes see THC in the mix as well; aside from its recreational aspects, it has its own set of medicinal properties and can be particularly effective against severe pain.
Hemp does best on a loose, well-aerated loam soil with high fertility and abundant organic matter. Well-drained clay soils can be used, but poorly-drained clay soils are very inappropriate because of their susceptibility to compaction, which is not tolerated. Young plants are sensitive to wet or flooded soils, so that hemp must have porous, friable, well-drained soils. Sandy soils will grow good hemp, provided that adequate irrigation and fertilization are provided, but doing so generally makes production uneconomical. Seedbed preparation requires considerable effort. Fall plowing is recommended, followed by careful preparation of a seedbed in the spring. The seedbed should be fine, level, and firm. Seed is best planted at 2–3 cm (twice as deep will be tolerated). Although the seedlings will germinate and survive at temperatures just above freezing, soil temperatures of 8°–10°C are preferable. Generally hemp should be planted after danger of hard freezes, and slightly before the planting date of maize. Good soil moisture is necessary for seed germination, and plenty of rainfall is needed for good growth, especially during the first 6 weeks. Seeding rate is specific to each variety, and this information should be sought from the supplier. Fiber strains are typically sown at a minimum rate of 250 seeds per m2 (approximately 45 kg/ha), and up to three times this density is sometimes recommended. In western Europe, seeding rates range from 60–70 kg/ha for fiber cultivars. Recommendations for seeding rates for grain production vary widely, from 10–45 kg/ha. Densities for seed production for tall, European, dual-purpose cultivars are less than for short oilseed cultivars. Low plant densities, as commonly found in growing tall European cultivars for seed, may not suppress weed growth adequately, and under these circumstances resort to herbicides may pose a problem for those wishing to grow hempseed organically. Hemp requires about the same fertility as a high-yielding crop of wheat. Industrial hemp grows well in areas that corn produces high yields. Growing hemp may require addition of up to 110 kg/ha of nitrogen, and 40–90 kg/ha of potash. Hemp particularly requires good nitrogen fertilization, more so for seed production than fiber. Adding nitrogen when it is not necessary is deleterious to fiber production, so that knowledge of the fertility of soils being used is very important. Organic matter is preferably over 3.5%, phosphorus should be medium to high (>40 ppm), potassium should be medium to high (>250 ppm), sulfur good (>5,000 ppm), and calcium not in excess (<6,000 ppm).
CBD has proven neuroprotective effects and its anti-cancer properties are being investigated at several academic research centers in the United States and elsewhere. A 2010 brain cancer study by California scientists found that CBD “enhances the inhibitory effects of THC on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival.” This means that CBD makes THC even more potent as an anticancer substance. Also in 2010, German researchers reported that CBD stimulates neurogenesis, the growth of new brain cells, in adult mammals.

so you can just make up a new plant because it don’t get the user high? Hemp is Cannabis. PERIOD. The Farm Bill and No amount of silly dialog can create a new botanical entry. Hemp IS Cannabis. Cannabis Ruderalis, native to Russia, also called ditch weed….may be imported as Hemp but it IS Cannabis Ruderalis. The semantic name calling game is kept in motion because it serves the desires of those that profit on the confusion. Bottomline, there is Cannabis. Some Cannabis can be used to fight disease. Oligodenroglioma (in my case) and some of it can be used to alter one’s outlook……but it’s all Cannabis. Grow it in South Carolina and call it Hemp, I say God bless you, bring it to my lab and it comes out as cannabis and it’s going to be called Cannabis. Disclaimer, while I do have oligodendroglioma, I do not personally have a lab ;). M.
Because CBD oil products are mostly unregulated, there’s no guarantee that any given product contains a safe or effective level of CBD. In fact, a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2017 found that nearly 70 percent of all CBD products sold online are incorrectly labeled, and could cause serious harm to consumers. Some CBD oils may also contain incorrectly labeled amounts of THC and other compounds.
Yes, there's a new type of topical ointment on the market, and it's infused with the cannabidiol (CBD) from marijuana. Manufacturers claim it can help alleviate acute pain and muscle soreness. CBD is similar to THC, except it's non-psychoactive, meaning some researchers view it as the golden child of medicinal use. (See also: Personal Trainers Reveal the Products They Use to Relieve Muscle Soreness)

Is it safe to rub on growths until I can afford to get my dog to the vet? We have no clinics for low cost visits or sliding scale (my only income is SSDI) and I simply cannot afford the minimum $250 for an office visit. I have been giving it to her orally, and her appetite and general outlook have greatly improved, so I was wondering if rubbing the tincture on the growth will help? I get the CBD free of charge until November. It does nothing for me, but seems to help her.
Hemp Seed Oil is derived from the hemp seeds and are mainly used for dietary purposes (imagine something similar to coconut oil). Refined hemp seed oil can also be used in beauty care products, as they have amazing skin care properties. CBD Hemp oil is not the same thing as hemp seed oil, as it is extracted from one of hemp’s many cannabinoids and have fundamentally different properties.
Everyone needs a lip balm in a tube for on-the-go situations, and Colorado-based Ambary Gardens made a clear version with a faint lemon scent and only seven ingredients including CBD extract. It doesn’t leave your lips glossy or shiny or sticky—it just adds a layer of hydrated protection on the surface of your lips. While I’ve yet to try this on chapped lips, I imagine it’s a quick fix for quick relief, no glossy residue left behind.
Probably indigenous to temperate Asia, C. sativa is the most widely cited example of a “camp follower.” It was pre-adapted to thrive in the manured soils around man’s early settlements, which quickly led to its domestication (Schultes 1970). Hemp was harvested by the Chinese 8500 years ago (Schultes and Hofmann 1980). For most of its history, C. sativa was most valued as a fiber source, considerably less so as an intoxicant, and only to a limited extent as an oilseed crop. Hemp is one of the oldest sources of textile fiber, with extant remains of hempen cloth trailing back 6 millennia. Hemp grown for fiber was introduced to western Asia and Egypt, and subsequently to Europe somewhere between 1000 and 2000 BCE. Cultivation in Europe became widespread after 500 ce. The crop was first brought to South America in 1545, in Chile, and to North America in Port Royal, Acadia in 1606. The hemp industry flourished in Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois between 1840 and 1860 because of the strong demand for sailcloth and cordage (Ehrensing 1998). From the end of the Civil War until 1912, virtually all hemp in the US was produced in Kentucky. During World War I, some hemp cultivation occurred in several states, including Kentucky, Wisconsin, California, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Kansas, and Iowa (Ehrensing 1998). The second world war led to a brief revival of hemp cultivation in the Midwest, as well as in Canada, because the war cut off supplies of fiber (substantial renewed cultivation also occurred in Germany for the same reason). Until the beginning of the 19th century, hemp was the leading cordage fiber. Until the middle of the 19th century, hemp rivaled flax as the chief textile fiber of vegetable origin, and indeed was described as “the king of fiber-bearing plants,—the standard by which all other fibers are measured” (Boyce 1900). Nevertheless, the Marihuana Tax Act applied in 1938 essentially ended hemp production in the United States, although a small hemp fiber industry continued in Wisconsin until 1958. Similarly in 1938 the cultivation of Cannabis became illegal in Canada under the Opium and Narcotics Act.

Bluebird is an award-winning CBD oil company. Every batch of our CBD is tested by third-party laboratories for potency and purity, and we manufacture our products according to the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs). What this essentially means is that through a litany of processes, we strictly ensure that every product has what the label says in the amount it says, and nothing else.
Prescription medicine (Schedule 4) for therapeutic use containing 2 per cent (2.0%) or less of other cannabinoids commonly found in cannabis (such as ∆9-THC). A schedule 4 drug under the SUSMP is Prescription Only Medicine, or Prescription Animal Remedy – Substances, the use or supply of which should be by or on the order of persons permitted by State or Territory legislation to prescribe and should be available from a pharmacist on prescription.[80]
Market considerations also heavily determine the wisdom of investing in hemp. Growing hemp unfortunately has a magnetic attraction to many, so there is danger of overproduction. A marketing board could be useful to prevent unrestrained competition and price fluctuations, but is difficult to establish when the industry is still very small. As noted above, unwise investment in Canada produced a glut of seeds that resulted in price dumping and unprofitable levels for the majority. Cultural and production costs of hemp have been said to be comparable to those for corn, and while the truth of this remains to be confirmed, the legislative burden that accompanies hemp puts the crop at a unique disadvantage. Among the problems that Canadian farmers have faced are the challenge of government licensing (some delays, and a large learning curve), very expensive and sometime poor seed (farmers are not allowed to generate their own seed), teenagers raiding fields in the mistaken belief that marijuana is being grown, and great difficulties in exportation because of the necessity of convincing authorities that hemp is not a narcotic. Unless the producer participates in sharing of value-added income, large profits are unlikely. The industry widely recognizes that value added to the crop is the chief potential source of profit, as indeed for most other crops.
The answer is that there is absolutely a solution for you.  In fact, natural CBD Cream may be exactly what you’re looking for.  When you have sore muscles, radiating aches, or nerve pain, it can ruin your day (and more).  But, the topical approach to CBD Cream is great for addressing your pain wherever you need relief the most. †  So, you can stop feeling like your chronic symptoms own you, and get your life back.  And, when you use CBD Pain Cream every day, you may realize that your symptoms naturally go away more frequently. †  So, are you ready to try the most innovative new pain remedy on the market?  Click on the button below to get your first jar.
Although global abnormalities in white matter and grey matter are not associated with cannabis abuse, reduced hippocampal volume is consistently found. Amygdalar abnormalities are sometimes reported, although findings are inconsistent.[112][113][114] Preliminary evidence suggests that this effect is largely mediated by THC, and that CBD may even have a protective effect.[115]
Lisa Hamilton, a jeweler and doula in Brooklyn, NY, knows about the side effects. She recently tried CBD for the shoulder pain that plagued her five years after an accident. Her doctor certified that she was in chronic pain, which under New York State law allowed her to buy from a state dispensary. One Friday, she swallowed two 10-mg capsules, the amount recommended at the dispensary, then took another two on Saturday. “By Sunday, it felt like I’d gotten hit by a truck. Every muscle and joint ached,” Hamilton says. She cut back to one pill a day the following week, but still felt hungover. She stopped after that.

Now imagine all this possibility actually exists but you can't enjoy any of it because people in power once decided the plant from which it's all derived has a scorned cousin named "marijuana." If you can wrap your mind around this dereliction of logic, only then can you begin to understand the painfully silly policies America's had in place that have kept hemp from coating our farmland with hues of pale yellow and light green.


Fig. 3. Photograph of Cannabis sativa. Left, staminate (“male”) plant in flower; right, pistillate (“female”) plant in flower. Fig. 4. United States National Institute of Health, University of Mississippi marijuana plantation site, showing variation in plant size. A tall fiber-type of hemp plant is shown at left, and a short narcotic variety (identified as “Panama Gold”) at right.
By definition, ointments must be infused with medicine, in this case CBD, and are of a semi-solid almost mucus-like consistency. Creams typically involve water or some type of aqueous substance as their base, while salves utilize only oils or waxes for their foundation. Ointments tend to contain a combination of oils, water and alcohols within their formulation.

Hemp can be used as a "mop crop" to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Additionally, hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site, by way of a process which is known as phytoremediation—the process of clearing radioisotopes and a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air.[46]
This is a huge, HUGE step for N.C. First of all farmers can FINALLY make money off land that has grown tobacco for generations. FINALLY doubter I finding out there are many uses for the plant. Perhaps one of the biggest things is the impact on the environment. Most products, if not all, are biodegradable. Also, a huge factor is that in the field of medicine. Will this lead to medical and/or recreational marijuana? Time will tell. As for me, I quit smoking it 20 years ago. I do, however, believe any and all forms of cannabis should and will be made legal. Legal, if for no other reason, so we can stop making people who smoke it into criminals, filling up our jails and prisons. This will free up police, etc.. to finding real criminals. Last, but defiantly not least, IMHO, there is the N.C. aspect. That being I thought we would never, EVER see this time in N.C. Even if it is just industrial hemp for now, it’s a start. Who knows, in the not too distant future, legislatures and law enforcement will become open minded enough to legalize all forms of cannabis, HOPEFULLY. With the youth of these times moving into the right fields, and of course us boomers weighing in, it won’t be too long. AMEN
A retrospective observational study reported that 21 of 30 patients improved clinically after cannabis treatment. Additionally, the need for other CD therapies and the number of surgeries both decreased.282 A prospective, placebo-controlled study of cannabis in the treatment of refractory CD showed benefit (P = 0.028), with clinical remission (CDAI < 150) achieved in 45% in cannabis group versus 10% in placebo group (P = 0.43).283 A recent study investigating the effects of cannabis on IBD reported an association between more severe disease and higher risk of surgery among cannabis users, although causality could not be determined based on this study design.284
^ Jump up to: a b Weinstein A, Livny A, Weizman A (2016). "Brain Imaging Studies on the Cognitive, Pharmacological and Neurobiological Effects of Cannabis in Humans: Evidence from Studies of Adult Users". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 22 (42): 6366–6379. doi:10.2174/1381612822666160822151323. PMID 27549374. 1)The studies reviewed so far demonstrated that chronic cannabis use has been associated with a volume reduction of the hippocampus...3)The overall conclusion arising from these studies is that recent cannabis users may experience subtle neurophysiological deficits while performing on working memory tasks, and that they compensate for these deficits by "working harder" by using additional brain regions to meet the demands of the task.
Hemp isn’t completely absent of psychoactive compounds, but that doesn’t mean it will get you high. Hemp plants simply don’t produce enough THC to have an intoxicating effect. CBD, though psychoactive, is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid and won’t produce any form of a euphoric high on its own. In other words, hemp has plenty of therapeutic potential, but you’ll have to look elsewhere if you want to get high.
Hemp rope was used in the age of sailing ships, though the rope had to be protected by tarring, since hemp rope has a propensity for breaking from rot, as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside.[44] Tarring was a labor-intensive process, and earned sailors the nickname "Jack Tar". Hemp rope was phased out when manila rope, which does not require tarring, became widely available. Manila is sometimes referred to as Manila hemp, but is not related to hemp; it is abacá, a species of banana.
In 1972, the Dutch government divided drugs into more- and less-dangerous categories, with cannabis being in the lesser category. Accordingly, possession of 30 grams or less was made a misdemeanor.[214] Cannabis has been available for recreational use in coffee shops since 1976.[215] Cannabis products are only sold openly in certain local "coffeeshops" and possession of up to 5 grams for personal use is decriminalised, however: the police may still confiscate it, which often happens in car checks near the border. Other types of sales and transportation are not permitted, although the general approach toward cannabis was lenient even before official decriminalisation.[216][217][218]
The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the 1990s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses; other uses are under development. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics; many traditional growing countries still continue to produce textile-grade fibre.
The vegetable oils have been classified by “iodine value” as drying (120–200), semi-drying (100–120), and non-drying (80–100), which is determined by the degree of saturation of the fatty acids present (Raie et al. 1995). Good coating materials prepared from vegetable oil depend on the nature and number of double bonds present in the fatty acids. Linseed oil, a drying oil, has a very high percentage of linolenic acid. Hempseed oil has been classified as a semi-drying oil, like soybean oil, and is therefore more suited to edible than industrial oil purposes. Nevertheless hemp oil has found applications in the past in paints, varnishes, sealants, lubricants for machinery, and printing inks. However, such industrial end uses are not presently feasible as the oil is considered too expensive (de Guzman 2001). Larger production volumes and lower prices may be possible, in which case hemp oil may find industrial uses similar to those of linseed (flax), soybean, and sunflower oils, which are presently used in paints, inks, solvents, binders, and in polymer plastics. Hemp shows a remarkable range of variation in oil constituents, and selection for oilseed cultivars with high content of valued industrial constituents is in progress.

In the last few decades, scientists also began looking into using CBD for dogs and cats, examining its health benefits and safety, and a lot more animal studies have emerged as a result (Iffland et al. 2017; Cannabis Cannabinoid Res). Today, we're seeing a lot of news relating to how dogs recover from many diseases, some of which are initially said to be fatal, thanks to the use of CBD products.
CBD’s action within the brain and body is quite complicated. To date, scientists have discovered more than a dozen different mechanisms of action, or ways that CBD affect us. It’s very likely that the beneficial effects of CBD are a result of the total of its activation of all of these biological pathways, not a single one in particular. Much more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms by which CBD relieves ailments such as anxiety and seizures.
Karl W. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Mahlberg[78] at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection. They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species, but not C. ruderalis.[53] The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, Central Asia, and Turkey to C. sativa. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. indica. In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. sativa, C. indica, and (tentatively) C. ruderalis.[56] In his doctoral dissertation published the same year, Hillig stated that principal components analysis of phenotypic (morphological) traits failed to differentiate the putative species, but that canonical variates analysis resulted in a high degree of discrimination of the putative species and infraspecific taxa.[79] Another paper in the series on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in the collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa.[80] Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. ruderalis as a separate species from C. sativa at this time, but more research on wild and weedy populations is needed because they were underrepresented in their collection.
^ Jump up to: a b Schreiner AM, Dunn ME (October 2012). "Residual effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive performance after prolonged abstinence: a meta-analysis". Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 20 (5): 420–429. doi:10.1037/a0029117. PMID 22731735. Therefore, results indicate evidence for small neurocognitive effects that persist after the period of acute intoxication...As hypothesized, the meta-analysis conducted on studies eval- uating users after at least 25 days of abstention found no residual effects on cognitive performance...These results fail to support the idea that heavy cannabis use may result in long-term, persistent effects on neuropsychological functioning.
CBD Cream – A lot of people out there suffer from chronic pain.  And, if you’re one of them, you know exactly what you’d do to get rid of those sometimes-debilitating symptoms.  But, you don’t want to pop pain killer after pain killer, day after day.  After all, you don’t know exactly what’s in those pills, and you put them in your body all the time.  Wouldn’t it be nice if there was a more natural remedy, which you could just apply to your body to feel better?
“DEA will continue to support sound and scientific research that promotes legitimate therapeutic uses for FDA-approved constituent components of cannabis, consistent with federal law,” acting DEA administrator Uttam Dhillon said in a press release. “DEA is committed to continuing to work with our federal partners to seek ways to make the process for research more efficient and effective.”
Probably indigenous to temperate Asia, C. sativa is the most widely cited example of a “camp follower.” It was pre-adapted to thrive in the manured soils around man’s early settlements, which quickly led to its domestication (Schultes 1970). Hemp was harvested by the Chinese 8500 years ago (Schultes and Hofmann 1980). For most of its history, C. sativa was most valued as a fiber source, considerably less so as an intoxicant, and only to a limited extent as an oilseed crop. Hemp is one of the oldest sources of textile fiber, with extant remains of hempen cloth trailing back 6 millennia. Hemp grown for fiber was introduced to western Asia and Egypt, and subsequently to Europe somewhere between 1000 and 2000 BCE. Cultivation in Europe became widespread after 500 ce. The crop was first brought to South America in 1545, in Chile, and to North America in Port Royal, Acadia in 1606. The hemp industry flourished in Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois between 1840 and 1860 because of the strong demand for sailcloth and cordage (Ehrensing 1998). From the end of the Civil War until 1912, virtually all hemp in the US was produced in Kentucky. During World War I, some hemp cultivation occurred in several states, including Kentucky, Wisconsin, California, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Kansas, and Iowa (Ehrensing 1998). The second world war led to a brief revival of hemp cultivation in the Midwest, as well as in Canada, because the war cut off supplies of fiber (substantial renewed cultivation also occurred in Germany for the same reason). Until the beginning of the 19th century, hemp was the leading cordage fiber. Until the middle of the 19th century, hemp rivaled flax as the chief textile fiber of vegetable origin, and indeed was described as “the king of fiber-bearing plants,—the standard by which all other fibers are measured” (Boyce 1900). Nevertheless, the Marihuana Tax Act applied in 1938 essentially ended hemp production in the United States, although a small hemp fiber industry continued in Wisconsin until 1958. Similarly in 1938 the cultivation of Cannabis became illegal in Canada under the Opium and Narcotics Act.
After seasonal harvests of specific cultivars, these high-CBD hemp crops are put through a specialized solvent-free extraction process to yield a hemp oil that is naturally high in cannabidiol. This pure hemp extract is then tested for safety, quality, and cannabinoid content before being exported to our processing facilities in the United States. Importing any cannabis or hemp product into the United States is a complicated and serious task, so we leave nothing to chance before our high-CBD hemp oil makes its journey across the Atlantic Ocean.
Luke Zigovits, chief executive of Wisconsin-based Hemp Science, said, “We can finally relax. Because now we can source seed, now we can sell our product across state lines. Prohibition is over. It broadens horizons, allowing universities to do research, for example.” Beyond moving the industry into legitimacy, Zigovits said there are opportunities for tobacco farmers in Wisconsin and elsewhere to start growing industrial hemp crops as well.
Cannabis sativa L. has been selectively bred for recreational uses to obtain the maximum “high”, so the level of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been increased very much (up to 20-25%) and, in upping the potency through selective breeding, CBD has been selectively eliminated from recreational varieties or, eventually, it is rarely found in specific varieties. CBD is often found in hemp – in varieties used to produce fiber and seeds. But the combination of CBD/THC in cannabis seem to be beneficial for medical use.
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Over 100 phytocannabinoids, as well as terpenoids, fatty acids, and other compounds with health relevance, have been found in Cannabis. The pharmacological importance of cannabinoids has been intensively studied. Multiple mechanisms of the effects of cannabinoids on the nervous system are being elucidated. Cannabinoids have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Hemp seed oil and terpenoids have health-promoting effects. The relationship between Cannabis chemotype and genotype is being revealed by chemical and genetic analyses. Various omics platform facilitate the basic and applied studies of Cannabis plants. An expanded Cannabaceae family, which consists of six genera, is advocated. This chapter summarizes the recent research progress of phytochemistry, pharmacology, and omics of Cannabis plants.
Scientific and clinical studies indicate that CBD could be effective in easing symptoms of a wide range of difficult-to-control conditions, including: rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, alcoholism, PTSD, epilepsy, antibiotic-resistant infections and neurological disorders. CBD has demonstrated neuroprotective effects, and its anti-cancer potential is currently being explored at several academic research centers in the U.S. and other countries.
As a physical therapist I have access to many modalities for pain. Specifically back pain that is not a radicular pain ( think disc problems) but sore muscle sprain/strain is common. Of all the modalities I have used, CBD transdermal is one of the most effective treatments. Pain just melts away in a matter of minutes without any smell or sensation.

In states with medical cannabis laws, consumers should try to purchase cannabis from licensed suppliers who share their test results, which hopefully validate their products’ robust cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles. If you’re looking to purchase hemp through an online outlet, research your purchase beforehand to ensure that you aren’t being duped.


The biggest central business districts of Spain are located in the country's capital, Madrid. The Paseo de la Castellana holds the city's main business districts: the Gate of Europe, AZCA and CTBA. AZCA is 19-hectare super block near Real Madrid's stadium Santiago Bernabéu. It used to be the country's main business area during the 1980s and 1990s, when most of its skyscrapers were built. The tallest building of AZCA is the Torre Picasso, a 158-tower designed by the World Trade Center's architect, and contains the main offices in Spain of Google and Deloitte. The Gate of Europe consists of two twin towers, which hold Spanish bank Bankia and real state company Realia. Just a few blocks north is the CTBA, a complex of four skyscrapers which are the tallest in Spain. Architects such as Norman Foster, Ieoh Ming Pei and Cesar Pelli have designed its towers, which were completed in 2008. The tallest building, the Torre de Cristal, is the fourth tallest building is Western Europe, with a height of 250 metres. The complex is home to offices from well known companies such as KPMG, Coca-Cola, Volkswagen, Bankia, Cepsa, PwC, OHL and holds the embassies of The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, as well as a 5-star hotel from Eurostars. A fifth tower is currently being built and will have the campus of the Instituto de Empresa university.
^ McLaren JA, Silins E, Hutchinson D, Mattick RP, Hall W (January 2010). "Assessing evidence for a causal link between cannabis and psychosis: a review of cohort studies". The International Journal on Drug Policy. 21 (1): 10–9. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.09.001. PMID 19783132. The contentious issue of whether cannabis use can cause serious psychotic disorders that would not otherwise have occurred cannot be answered based on the existing data
The 2014 Farm Bill[75] legalized the sale of "non-viable hemp material" grown within states participating in the Hemp Pilot Program.[76] This legislation defined hemp as cannabis containing less than 0.3% of THC delta-9, grown within the regulatory framework of the Hemp Pilot Program.[77] The 2018 Farm Bill allowed for interstate commerce of hemp derived products, though these products still fall under the purview of the FDA.[78][79]
From the 1950s to the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world's largest producer of hemp (3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) in 1970). The main production areas were in Ukraine,[87] the Kursk and Orel regions of Russia, and near the Polish border. Since its inception in 1931, the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv (Glukhov), Ukraine, has been one of the world's largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content.[88][89]

Unfortunately, because this is a supplement we're not allowed to make medical claims regarding its use as a treatment or cure. However, this is the exact reason we began using this product on our own pets. (Our founding pets were diagnosed with cancer; one was 16 and the other was 8.) We used phytocannabinoidas palliative care for appetite and pain management.
Hemp seeds have an attractive nutty taste, and are now incorporated into many food preparations (Fig. 34), often mimicking familiar foods. Those sold in North America include nutritional (granola-type) or snack bars, “nut butters” and other spreads, bread, pretzels, cookies, yogurts, pancakes, porridge, fruit crumble, frozen dessert (“ice cream”), pasta, burgers, pizza, salt substitute, salad dressings, mayonnaise, “cheese,” and beverages (“milk,” “lemonade,” “beer,” “wine,” “coffee nog”). Hemp seed is often found canned or vacuum-packed (Fig. 35). Alcoholic beverages made with hemp utilize hempseed as a flavorant. Hemp food products currently have a niche market, based particularly on natural food and specialty food outlets.
^ Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, José A.; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Borgwardt, Stefan J.; Allen, Paul; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Seal, Marc; Surguladze, Simon A.; O'Carrol, Colin; Atakan, Zerrin; Zuardi, Antonio W.; McGuire, Philip K. (2009). "Distinct Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Neural Activation During Emotional Processing". Archives of General Psychiatry. 66 (1): 95–105. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.519. PMID 19124693.
Hemp includes all varieties of the Cannabis genus that contain negligible amounts of THC, the chemical that makes marijuana psychoactive and gets you “high”.  The Cannabis family has several different breeds, yet it is most infamously known for marijuana (“weed”). This is the main reason why people confuse the term hemp with marijuana. Hemp actually refers to the industrial, non-drug variant that is cultivated for its fiber, hurd, and seeds.
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