This guide is an introduction to anyone looking to inform themselves about the reality of cannabis. It covers basic information about the marijuana plant, cannabis preparations, and the crucial elements of plant anatomy and science. This guide to marijuana also gives an overview of the most popular medical and recreational uses of cannabis. It offers a survey of the most important medical cannabis research while highlighting emerging trends in the legal cannabis market. The guide also introduces those new to cannabis to the many ways to consume marijuana, and much more.
The 2014 Agricultural Act, more commonly known as the 2014 Farm Bill, signed by Democratic President Barack Obama, includes section 7606, which allows for universities and state departments of agriculture to cultivate industrial hemp, as long as it is cultivated for the purpose of research. Under the 2014 Agricultural act, state departments and universities must also be registered with their state, and defer to state laws and regulations for approval to grow hemp.
Whole-plant or full-spectrum extracts are considered to be the most therapeutically effective. In this form, CBD works in conjunction with other cannabinoids to produce what’s called the entourage effect: the result of numerous types of cannabinoids, each with a specific function, working together. You’ll sometimes see THC in the mix as well; aside from its recreational aspects, it has its own set of medicinal properties and can be particularly effective against severe pain.
Marijuana, from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, contains many cannabinoid compounds, of which Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the psychoactive agent. Hashish is made from the plant resin, which contains high concentrations of Δ9-THC. Usually smoked, but sometimes taken orally, marijuana produces relaxed euphoria, often with disinhibition, subjective perception of time slowing, tachycardia, and postural hypotension. High doses cause auditory or visual hallucinations and psychosis, but fatal overdose has not been documented. Withdrawal symptoms other than jitteriness are rare, but craving is common.
CBD strains can be consumed just as you would THC strains. You can smoke or vaporize CBD-rich flower, eat a CBD-infused edible, swallow a CBD oil capsule, apply a CBD lotion, or use a CBD tincture sublingually. Hemp products also contain CBD, though it is a less efficient source and lacks the beneficial chemical diversity of cannabis-derived CBD products (more on that here).

By 1938, Popular Mechanics called hemp the “Billion Dollar Crop,”1 praising its potential to produce 25,000 different products, as high as $192 billion in today’s market and capable of producing four times the paper per acre than trees. Farmers from the Midwest to the East coast harvested more than 150,000 acres for the war’s Hemp for Victory Program, implemented by the USDA from 1942 through 1946, but rumblings by the competition had already started.
There has been a lot of hype recently, especially throughout the media, regarding the rising-in-popularity CBD, but still plenty of confusion may exist regarding this naturally occurring chemical’s abilities, composition and why exactly it works. Probably the two most common topical forms of CBD are oils and creams, so these are the two products we will be focusing on.
For a fiber crop, hemp is cut in the early flowering stage or while pollen is being shed, well before seeds are set. Tall European cultivars (greater than 2 m) have mostly been grown in Canada to date, and most of these are photoperiodically adapted to mature late in the season (often too late). Small crops have been harvested with sickle-bar mowers and hay swathers, but plugging of equipment is a constant problem. Hemp fibers tend to wrap around combine belts, bearings, indeed any moving part, and have resulted in large costs of combine repairs (estimated at $10.00/ha). Slower operation of conventional combines has been recommended (0.6–2 ha/hour). Large crops may require European specialized equipment, but experience in North America with crops grown mainly for fiber is limited. The Dutch company HempFlax has developed or adapted several kinds of specialized harvesting equipment (Fig. 44, 45).
Hemp jewelry is the product of knotting hemp twine through the practice of macramé. Hemp jewellery includes bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches, and other adornments. Some jewellery features beads made from crystals, glass, stone, wood and bones. The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in a variety of colors. There are many different stitches used to create hemp jewellery, however, the half knot and full knot stitches are most common.
Toronto, Ontario--(Newsfile Corp. - February 28, 2019) - Gunpowder Capital Corp., (CSE: GPC), (CSE: GPC.PR.A), (OTCQB: GNPWF), (FSE: YS6N), ("Gunpowder" or the "Corporation") is very pleased to announce that it has entered into a strategic relationship with Hemp Inc., (OTC Pink: HEMP) of Las Vegas Nevada with the purpose of entering into the Industrial Hemp industry in the United States.Under the terms of the agreement, Hemp Inc., and Gunpowder will both make strategic ...
The 2016 European Journal of Pain conducted a study on rat models to test the effectiveness of CBD against arthritis in order to see if it could serve as an all-natural alternative to the typical arthritis pain medications, which are often tied with numerous uncomfortable and frustrating side effects. The rats were treated for 4 days with 4 different doses of CBD gel, and the results were quite staggering.
Cutting-edge science has shown that the endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in nearly all pathological conditions. Thus, it stands to reason that “modulating endocannabinoid system activity may have therapeutic potential in almost all diseases affecting humans,” as Pal Pacher and George Kunos, scientists with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), suggested in a 2014 publication.

In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex (a drug made with a purified form of CBD oil) in June 2018 for the treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy in patients 2 years of age and older. These two epilepsy forms are known as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved drug that contains a purified drug substance derived from marijuana.
Harvesting tall varieties for grain is difficult. In France, the principal grower of dual-purpose varieties, the grain is taken off the field first, leaving most of the stalks for later harvest (Fig. 49). Putting tall whole plants through a conventional combine results in the straw winding around moving parts, and the fibers working into bearings, causing breakdown, fires, high maintenance, and frustration. Following the French example of raising the cutting blade to harvest the grain is advisable. Growing short varieties dedicated to grain production eliminates many of the above problems, and since the profitability of hemp straw is limited at present, seems preferable. Grain growers should be aware that flocks of voracious birds are a considerable source of damage to hempseed, particularly in small plantations.
The genus Cannabis was formerly placed in the nettle (Urticaceae) or mulberry (Moraceae) family, and later, along with the genus Humulus (hops), in a separate family, the hemp family (Cannabaceae sensu stricto).[45] Recent phylogenetic studies based on cpDNA restriction site analysis and gene sequencing strongly suggest that the Cannabaceae sensu stricto arose from within the former family Celtidaceae, and that the two families should be merged to form a single monophyletic family, the Cannabaceae sensu lato.[46][47]
I have a cat with glaucoma diagnosed 1 month ago and on a prescribed eye drop 5ml Azopt Opht Susp. 1%. tid . The vet doesn’t think it will work for long. She is 17 and has heart murmur so thinks taking the eye would not be possible due to risk with murmur. Is it possible CBD will help that? How much liquid oil to give per lb? My CBD is 3.3MG/ML CBD in salmon oil. Farmacy brand. Trusted.
I am so glad I found this/you 🙂 First, we have a 13 year old rescue pitbull. We have had her for one year (since October 2017). She was a bait dog and has severe anxiety. We tried everything we were told. We were giving her 2mgs of Xanax with no relief. She would pace and pant for hours (the longest was 6-7 hours). She was absolutely miserable. We switched to Gabapentin with a combination of Xanax, then Gabapentin with Klonopin. The later combination would completely knock her out. We have been giving her 0.75mg of a 1000mg CBD tincture for two weeks. Last night was the first time in the 1 year that we have had her that she slept while it was raining. She has been peaceful and relaxed today. I cannot tell you how excited I was to see her walk outside, without trembling, to use the bathroom. She was not even shaking. We took her to a behaviorist, a trainer, and other professionals. CBD has given our girl a chance to experience life without terror. I am so grateful. It may have taken 13 years, but she can relax now. They did a story about her on IHeartdogs. I am going to ask the lady to update now that we have found CBD oil.
Though clinical and anecdotal evidence suggests CBD’s benefits in managing different conditions, it became most famous for treating a rare and debilitating form of pediatric epilepsy. Dravet’s Syndrome is notoriously resistant to current approved treatment methods. Sufferers are plagued by seizures, often up to hundreds a day, that worsen as they age and can be life-threatening. Currently, treatment methods include having the child wear an eyepatch, specialized diets, and brain surgery, but all have mixed success rates.
Until 2017, products containing cannabidiol marketed for medical purposes were classed as medicines by the UK regulatory body, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and could not be marketed without regulatory approval for the medical claims.[90] As of 2018, cannabis oil is legal to possess, buy, and sell in the UK, providing the product does not contain more than 0.2% THC and is not advertised as providing a medicinal benefit.[91]
We start with an exceptionally high-quality lotion which we infuse with our hemp extract.  So, not only will you get the CBD you seek, you will also get a lotion that moisturizes without leaving you feeling greasy.  And, the pleasant aroma is soft and subtle, not overwhelming.  The lotion is ideal for using in larger parts of the body as it is not quite as thick as the cream.  The lotion is able to cover a larger part of the body, although it doesn’t have to be spread out.  It can also be used in smaller areas if that’s what you desire.  This product is made with 100mg of CBD per ounce of product.
Visit a dog park in a state where cannabis is legal, and you’re sure to overhear someone recommend giving CBD to their pet. Similar to the way we talk about CBD and humans, there is a plethora of examples where CBD might help–anxiety when traveling or going to the vet, pain maintenance, using THC as a tumor inhibitor, etc. If you Google search “cbd and pets” right now, the results show three times the options of “pet-friendly” products to buy as there are educational resources. There is no question that people are already medicating their dogs with forms of cannabis and CBD extracts.
so you can just make up a new plant because it don’t get the user high? Hemp is Cannabis. PERIOD. The Farm Bill and No amount of silly dialog can create a new botanical entry. Hemp IS Cannabis. Cannabis Ruderalis, native to Russia, also called ditch weed….may be imported as Hemp but it IS Cannabis Ruderalis. The semantic name calling game is kept in motion because it serves the desires of those that profit on the confusion. Bottomline, there is Cannabis. Some Cannabis can be used to fight disease. Oligodenroglioma (in my case) and some of it can be used to alter one’s outlook……but it’s all Cannabis. Grow it in South Carolina and call it Hemp, I say God bless you, bring it to my lab and it comes out as cannabis and it’s going to be called Cannabis. Disclaimer, while I do have oligodendroglioma, I do not personally have a lab ;). M.
Although CBD oils aren’t regulated by the FDA, purchasing products stateside from one of the nine states where recreational and medical cannabis use is legal will likely result in a higher-quality product than buying one made with hemp-derived CBD oil imported from abroad, says Martin Lee, director of Project CBD, a nonprofit that promotes medical research into CBD.
In Japan, hemp was historically used as paper and a fiber crop. There is archaeological evidence cannabis was used for clothing and the seeds were eaten in Japan back to the Jōmon period (10,000 to 300 BC). Many Kimono designs portray hemp, or asa (Japanese: 麻), as a beautiful plant. In 1948, marijuana was restricted as a narcotic drug. The ban on marijuana imposed by the United States authorities was alien to Japanese culture, as the drug had never been widely used in Japan before. Though these laws against marijuana are some of the world's strictest, allowing five years imprisonment for possession of the drug, they exempt hemp growers, whose crop is used to make robes for Buddhist monks and loincloths for Sumo wrestlers. Because marijuana use in Japan has doubled in the past decade, these exemptions have recently been called into question.[150]
There is certainly a need to utilize available germplasm sources in order to breed suitable cultivars for North America. A list of the 24 approved cultivars for the 2001 season in Canada is at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb-dgps/therapeut/htmleng/hemp.html. Most of these are regulated by the European Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These cultivars are “approved” for use in Canada not on agricultural criteria, but merely on the basis that they meet the THC criterion. Indeed, most of these are unsuitable or only marginally suitable for Canada (Small and Marcus 2000), and only a very few Canadian cultivars to date have been created. In Canada, every acquisition of hemp grown at a particular place and time must be tested for THC content by an independent laboratory and, under the industrial hemp regulations, fields of hemp with more than 0.3% THC may require destruction (a slight degree of flexibility is generally exercised). Importation of experimental hemp lines (i.e. other than the approved cultivars) requires importation licenses (as well as phytosanitary clearance of the shipment by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency), and the importation licenses require an indication that the THC contents are low.
Hashish (also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash) is a concentrated resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached trichomes and fine material that falls off cannabis flowers and leaves.[179] or from scraping the resin from the surface of the plants and rolling it into balls. It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity and variety of cultivar it was obtained from.[180] It can be consumed orally or smoked, and is also vaporised, or 'vaped'.[181] The term "rosin hash" refers to a high quality solventless product obtained through heat and pressure.[182]
Hemp rope was used in the age of sailing ships, though the rope had to be protected by tarring, since hemp rope has a propensity for breaking from rot, as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside.[44] Tarring was a labor-intensive process, and earned sailors the nickname "Jack Tar". Hemp rope was phased out when manila rope, which does not require tarring, became widely available. Manila is sometimes referred to as Manila hemp, but is not related to hemp; it is abacá, a species of banana.
Multiple sclerosis (MS). There is inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of cannabidiol for symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Some early research suggests that using a cannabidiol spray under the tongue might improve pain and muscle tightness in people with MS. However, it does not appear to improve muscle spasms, tiredness, bladder control, the ability to move around, or well-being and quality of life.

Below is a list of 15 reasons why CBD and dogs go well together, and how CBD dog treats, liquids and pills can help pets with a variety of health problems. All of these conditions have been studied in canines, mice and humans to some extent. You can find a list of studies and references at the end of this article, and also read a more well referenced science-based article on 25 Health Benefits of CBD for Dogs.


Most human studies of CBD have been done on people who have seizures, and the FDA recently approved the first CBD-based drug, Epidiolex, for rare forms of epilepsy. Clinical trials for other conditions are promising, but tiny. In one Brazilian study published in 2011 of people with generalized social anxiety disorder, for example, taking a 600-mg dose of CBD (higher than a typical dose from a tincture) lessened discomfort more than a placebo, but only a dozen people were given the pill.
In 1924, Russian botanist D.E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C. sativa or a separate species, and proposed C. sativa L. var. ruderalis Janisch, and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch, as alternative names.[48] In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam. var. kafiristanica Vav., and ruderal populations in Europe to C. sativa L. var. spontanea Vav.[53][62] In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and Sizov proposed a complex classification in which they also recognized C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. culta Serebr. (consisting of cultivated plants), and C. sativa L. subsp. spontanea (Vav.) Serebr. (consisting of wild or feral plants). Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta. However, they did not divide C. indica into subspecies or varieties.[48][64]
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All available evidence indicates that long term use of PurCBD+ causes no side effects; however, PurCBD+ has only truly been available for pets for a couple years. The most common reason our customers cite for using CBD is to replace prescription drugs that have a known history of long term side effects. Always consult your veterinarian and use our dosing chart/schedule to coordinate the use of dietary supplements like PurCBD with prescription medications.
I think being safe to eat is a moot point. These are topical products. I don’t think anybody is buying to eat them. It’s just a marketing tactic. In regards to the chapsticks, unless you were trying to literally eat the chapstick I think whatever negligible amount may make it past your lips and into your mouth, would certainly not be a health concern from any of these products. What concerns me more is there is zero efficacy with all of these products. Do they just decide over breakfast how much CBD needs to be added for the dosage to work? It’s ridiculous that they are marketing it as safe to eat, and people are buying into that bs and providing no clinical studies or research at all. Just my 2 cents
A wide variety of hemp clothing, footwear, and food products are now available in North America. Some American manufacturers and distributors have chosen to exploit the association of hemp products with marijuana in their advertising. Such marketing is unfortunate, sending the message that some in the industry are indifferent to the negative image that this generates in the minds of much of the potential consuming public. Admittedly, such advertising works. But marketing based on the healthful and tasteful properties of hemp food products, the durable nature of hemp textiles, and the environmental advantages of the crop has proven to be widely acceptable, and is likely to promote the long term development of hemp industries.
These mounting developments in the elicited a problem amongst cannabis cultivators across the US: decades of selectively breeding cannabis to achieve the maximum amount of THC for a strong high reduced the overall preponderance of CBD in cultivars across the country to trace lows. Essentially, CBD had been selectively bred out of existence across the country.
Hemp paper is high-priced for several reasons. Economies of scale are such that the supply of hemp is minute compared to the supply of wood fiber. Hemp processing requires non-wood-based processing facilities. Hemp paper is typically made only from bast fibers, which require separation from the hurds, thereby increasing costs. This represents less than 50% of the possible fiber yield of the plant, and future technologies that pulp the whole stalks could decrease costs substantially. Hemp is harvested once a year, so that it needs to be stored to feed mills throughout the year. Hemp stalks are very bulky, requiring much handling and storage. Transportation costs are also very much higher for hemp stalks than for wood chips. Waste straw is widely available from cereals and other crops, and although generally not nearly as desirable as hemp, can produce bulk pulp far more cheaply than can be made from hemp. In addition to agricultural wastes, there are vast quantities of scrub trees, especially poplar, in northern areas, that can supply large amounts of low-quality wood fiber extremely cheaply. Moreover, in northern areas fast-growing poplars and willows can be grown, and such agro-forestry can be very productive and environmentally benign. And, directly or indirectly, the lumber/paper industry receives subsidies and/or supports, which is most unlikely for hemp.

Choosing CBD products isn’t as simple as picking something off the dispensary shelf and then walking out the door. Consumers should be aware that a handful of hemp products on the market pay lip service to governmental regulations by labeling themselves as hemp, despite containing cannabinoids and terpenoids. Some CBD products are completely devoid of cannabinoids including CBD, despite package labeling. The FDA purchased a number of CBD products online in 2015 and 2016 to test them for the presence of CBD and other cannabinoids. They found that the amount of CBD these products claimed on their labels was markedly inaccurate; some didn’t even contain CBD.


I have numerous areas of severe pain in my back,neck, legs, and feet, + have suffered for 25 years from Fibro. I was so impressed with this cream!! It takes so little - not even a full squeeze of cream to cover my entire foot, or my spine, neck, and lower back. The cream does NOT need to be massaged into the painful area - just applied to the surface. Less than five minutes later, whammo! Literally NO PAIN, and it lasted for most of the day. I'm talking hours upon hours of relief!

In the United States, central business districts are often called "downtown" (even if there is no "uptown"). In most cities the downtown area will be home to the financial district, but usually contains entertainment and retail of some kind as well. The downtown areas of many cities, such as Los Angeles, Chicago, Atlanta, Cleveland, San Diego, New Orleans, San Francisco, St. Louis, and Houston, are also home to large sports and convention venues. Historic sections of a central business district may be called "old town", while decaying parts of the centre city are commonly called the "inner city". The term inner city is sometimes used evocatively, applying a negative connotation and referring to peripheral areas that suffered economically from white flight.
Everything you need to know about CBD oil CBD oil may offer a range of benefits, including reducing pain and inflammation. Evidence shows that the oil does not contain psychoactive properties and so does not have the same effects as marijuana. Here, learn more about CBD oil and its uses, benefits, and risks. We also discuss its legality in the U.S. Read now

I have tried at least 3 other brands of CBD oil . Medterra has been the absolute best for me. It helps with my pain from arthritic joints spine issues and fibromyalgia. It laso helps with anxiety. I take the 500 CBD tincture twice a day. I use the Cooling cream 750 on my knees cervical and lumbar spines. I alsi use it on my hands and left hip. It is very good at pain relief . My experience with the customer service department has been superb. The service rep Heather has been very easy to work with respectful and very prompt. Medterra is a been and company I will gladly recommend to friends family and my doctors. Thank you Medterra for a great product and excellent service.


In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 24 smokers were randomly chosen to receive either an inhaler of CBD oil or a placebo. Participants were asked to take a puff every time they had an urge to puff a cigarette. Over the week, those with placebo inhalers saw no change in their total number of cigarettes consumed, while those who were taking CBD saw a nearly 40 percent drop in their intake. Using the inhaler decreased the number of cigarettes without increasing their craving for nicotine, pointing towards a purpose for Cannabidiol in the withdrawal process.

It has been contended that hemp is notably superior to most crops in terms of biomass production, but van der Werf (1994b) noted that the annual dry matter yield of hemp (rarely approaching 20 t/ha) is not exceptional compared to maize, beet, or potato. Nevertheless, hemp has been rated on a variety of criteria as one of the best crops available to produce energy in Europe (Biewinga and van der Bijl 1996). Hemp, especially the hurds, can be burned as is or processed into charcoal, methanol, methane, or gasoline through pyrolysis (destructive distillation). As with maize, hemp can also be used to create ethanol. However, hemp for such biomass purposes is a doubtful venture in North America. Conversion of hemp biomass into fuel or alcohol is impractical on this continent, where there are abundant supplies of wood, and energy can be produced relatively cheaply from a variety of sources. Mallik et al. (1990) studied the possibility of using hemp for “biogas” (i.e. methane) production, and concluded that it was unsuitable for this purpose. Pinfold Consulting (1998) concluded that while there may be some potential for hemp biomass fuel near areas where hemp is cultivated, “a fuel ethanol industry is not expected to develop based on hemp.”

Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus.[202] It was used by Muslims in various Sufi orders as early as the Mamluk period, for example by the Qalandars.[203] Smoking pipes uncovered in Ethiopia and carbon-dated to around c. AD 1320 were found to have traces of cannabis.[204]


The environment in which hemp and marijuana are grown is strikingly different. Hemp is grown closely together (as close as 4 inches apart) and are typically grown in large multi-acre plots. It can also grow in variety of climates and its growth cycle is 108-120 days. Unlike hemp, marijuana requires a carefully controlled, warm, and humid atmostphere for proper growth. Its growth cycle only 60-90 days. Medical cannabis also cannot be grown too close to each other. They are typically grown 6 feet apart. If, somehow, marijuana grows among (or close to) a hemp field, the hemp’s pollen would immediateately ruin the marijuana crop, diluting marijuana’s psychoactivity.
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A study analysis in Journal of Pain Research confirms that topical use of certain cannabinoid topicals can reduce pain in animals with inflammation or neuropathic pain. And science has found topical creams with THC and CBD help relieve pain for conditions like multiple sclerosis. But for the vast majority of chronic pain—and most certainly for acute pain like post-workout—the scientific jury is 100 percent still out. "There's a little bit of data in support of CBD for pain relief, but to go from animal to human is a giant leap," Sexton says.

CBD and THC interact with our bodies in a variety of ways. One of the main ways they impact us is by mimicking and augmenting the effects of the compounds in our bodies called “endogenous cannabinoids” - so named because of their similarity to the compounds found in the cannabis plant. These “endocannabinoids” are part of a regulatory system called the “endocannabinoid system”.
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