PurCBD+ uses the most reliable suppliers for phytocannabinoid oil for humans. Everything from the ingredients to the bottle and dropper are human grade. The owners and staff of Innovet use PurCBD on ourselves and our own pets. Our goal has always been to make the product equal or better in every way to its human-use counterparts. However, due to the extra liability involved in marketing the product for human use, officially we are required to say that it’s only for pets.
Market considerations also heavily determine the wisdom of investing in hemp. Growing hemp unfortunately has a magnetic attraction to many, so there is danger of overproduction. A marketing board could be useful to prevent unrestrained competition and price fluctuations, but is difficult to establish when the industry is still very small. As noted above, unwise investment in Canada produced a glut of seeds that resulted in price dumping and unprofitable levels for the majority. Cultural and production costs of hemp have been said to be comparable to those for corn, and while the truth of this remains to be confirmed, the legislative burden that accompanies hemp puts the crop at a unique disadvantage. Among the problems that Canadian farmers have faced are the challenge of government licensing (some delays, and a large learning curve), very expensive and sometime poor seed (farmers are not allowed to generate their own seed), teenagers raiding fields in the mistaken belief that marijuana is being grown, and great difficulties in exportation because of the necessity of convincing authorities that hemp is not a narcotic. Unless the producer participates in sharing of value-added income, large profits are unlikely. The industry widely recognizes that value added to the crop is the chief potential source of profit, as indeed for most other crops.
“The political implications of that scheduling, from a research perspective, are limiting,” explains Sutton. “To my knowledge, of the thousands of academic and research bodies in the United States and Canada whom would be equipped to perform agricultural or medical research on this unique species, only around 40 have actual research licenses to study the plant in a limited context.”

CBD is the plant’s second most abundant cannabinoid; first place goes to THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, which generates marijuana’s distinctive high. It’s extracted and processed as either an isolate (on its own) or as a full-spectrum oil, one of a group of related cannabinoids that often includes cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabidivarin (CBDV), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), terpenes and flavonoids.
A retrospective observational study reported that 21 of 30 patients improved clinically after cannabis treatment. Additionally, the need for other CD therapies and the number of surgeries both decreased.282 A prospective, placebo-controlled study of cannabis in the treatment of refractory CD showed benefit (P = 0.028), with clinical remission (CDAI < 150) achieved in 45% in cannabis group versus 10% in placebo group (P = 0.43).283 A recent study investigating the effects of cannabis on IBD reported an association between more severe disease and higher risk of surgery among cannabis users, although causality could not be determined based on this study design.284
Hemp is a farmer's friend because compared with cotton, corn, and soybeans, it requires little water, isn't picky when it comes to poor soil. It grows tightly spaced, thus crowding out weeds, and boasts a deep, soil-aerating root system. Despite all its advantages, and because growing it is illegal with the exception of limited licenses, the U.S. imports approximately $60 million worth of hemp from overseas countries like China.
The most effective cannabinoid to relax muscles is CBD (600mg inside). CBD cream has been shown to relieve pain more effectively than opioid pain killers. Use our CBD cream to help maintain optimal skin moisturization and help maintain skin revitalization and conditioning. Our uniquely formulated CBD topical cream can quickly absorb through the skin to help give you the muscle and joint recovery you need.
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Over 100 phytocannabinoids, as well as terpenoids, fatty acids, and other compounds with health relevance, have been found in Cannabis. The pharmacological importance of cannabinoids has been intensively studied. Multiple mechanisms of the effects of cannabinoids on the nervous system are being elucidated. Cannabinoids have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Hemp seed oil and terpenoids have health-promoting effects. The relationship between Cannabis chemotype and genotype is being revealed by chemical and genetic analyses. Various omics platform facilitate the basic and applied studies of Cannabis plants. An expanded Cannabaceae family, which consists of six genera, is advocated. This chapter summarizes the recent research progress of phytochemistry, pharmacology, and omics of Cannabis plants.
Fiberboard. In North America the use of nonwood fibers in sheet fiberboard (“pressboard” or “composite board”) products is relatively undeveloped. Flax, jute, kenaf, hemp, and wheat straw can be used to make composite board. Wheat straw is the dominant nonwood fiber in such applications. Although it might seem that hemp bast fibers are desirable in composite wood products because of their length and strength, in fact the short fibers of the hurds have been found to produce a superior product (K. Domier, pers. commun.). Experimental production of hemp fiberboard has produced extremely strong material (Fig. 22). The economic viability of such remains to be tested. Molded fiberboard products are commercially viable in Europe (Fig. 23), but their potential in North America remains to be determined.
A chief argument that has been advanced in favor of developing hemp as a paper and pulp source has been that as a non-wood or tree-free fiber source, it can reduce harvesting of primary forests and the threat to associated biodiversity. It has been claimed that hemp produces three to four times as much useable fiber per hectare per annum as forests. However, Wong (1998) notes evidence that in the southern US hemp would produce only twice as much pulp as does a pine plantation (but see discussion below on suitability of hemp as a potential lumber substitute in areas lacking trees).
© 2019 Floyd's of Leadville. This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A Doctor's advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. All trademarks and copyrights are property of their respective owners and are not affiliated with nor do they endorse this product. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Individual weight loss results will vary. By using this site you agree to follow the Privacy Policy and all Terms & Conditions printed on this site. Void Where Prohibited By Law.
Fig. 8. Scanning electron micrographs of the abaxial surface of a perigonal bract (which envelops the fruit). These bracts are the most intoxicating part of the plant, and may contain 20% THC, dry weight. The resin is synthesized both in stalked and sessile glands. Multicellular secretory glands (of phallic appearance), some broken stalks of these (note cellular appearance), and unicellular cystolith hairs (claw-like structures) are pictured. Fig. 9. Some important cannabinoids of cannabis resin. D9-THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) is the chief intoxicant chemical and predominates in intoxicant strains, while the isomer D8-THC is usually present in no more than trace amounts. CBD (cannabidiol) is the chief non-intoxicant chemical, and predominates in non-intoxicant strains; it has sedative effects. The non-intoxicant CBN (cannabinol) is a frequent degradation or oxidation product. The non-intoxicant cannabichromene (CBC) is typically found in trace amounts in intoxicant strains. The non-intoxicant cannabigerol (CBG) is considered to be a precursor of the other cannbinoids (see Fig. 10).

Kimberly is the reference editor for Live Science and Space.com. She has a bachelor's degree in marine biology from Texas A&M University, a master's degree in biology from Southeastern Louisiana University and a graduate certificate in science communication from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Her favorite stories include animals and obscurities. A Texas native, Kim now lives in a California redwood forest. You can follow her on Twitter @kimdhickok.
Marijuana is the most popular illicit drug in the world, for no reason other than the fact that it produces a psychoactive chemical called tetrahydrocannabinol. Still, recreational marijuana use, which involves pursuing the euphoric sensations produced by cannabis consumption, is steadily becoming more and more legal, both in the United States and abroad.
The legality of CBD in the US varies from state to state, but at the federal level, CBD is mysteriously classified as a Schedule I drug despite its sourcing. According to the federal government, Schedule I drugs are substances or chemicals with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Other Schedule I drugs include heroin, LSD, marijuana, and ecstasy. However, CBD can be purchased as a dietary supplement throughout the country despite the FDA’s official stance that CBD isn’t a supplement. The landscape of CBD legality in the US is exactly as confusing as it reads; that squirrely, perplexing itch at the back of your brain is cognitive dissonance, and it’s an entirely normal reaction.
Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug. The hemp plant Cannabis sativa, from which marijuana grows throughout the world, flourishes in most temperate and tropical regions. Marijuana is commonly ingested by smoking, which increases the bioavailability of the primary psychoactive constituent, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Musty et al., 1995; Hall and Solowij, 1998). Inhalation of marijuana smoke produces euphoria, signs of increased sympathetic nervous system activity, and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity (Schwartz, 1987). At high doses, however, sympathetic activity is inhibited and parasympathetic activity is increased, leading to bradycardia and hypotension. Reversible ECG abnormalities have been reported, as have increases in supraventricular and ventricular ectopic activity (Ghuran and Nolan, 2000). The clinical relevance of this finding is unclear.
From the 1950s to the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world's largest producer of hemp (3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) in 1970). The main production areas were in Ukraine,[87] the Kursk and Orel regions of Russia, and near the Polish border. Since its inception in 1931, the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv (Glukhov), Ukraine, has been one of the world's largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content.[88][89]
Fiberboard. In North America the use of nonwood fibers in sheet fiberboard (“pressboard” or “composite board”) products is relatively undeveloped. Flax, jute, kenaf, hemp, and wheat straw can be used to make composite board. Wheat straw is the dominant nonwood fiber in such applications. Although it might seem that hemp bast fibers are desirable in composite wood products because of their length and strength, in fact the short fibers of the hurds have been found to produce a superior product (K. Domier, pers. commun.). Experimental production of hemp fiberboard has produced extremely strong material (Fig. 22). The economic viability of such remains to be tested. Molded fiberboard products are commercially viable in Europe (Fig. 23), but their potential in North America remains to be determined.
A condition in which a transplant attacks the body (Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)). Graft-versus-host disease is a complication that can occur after a bone marrow transplant. In people with this condition, donor cells attack the person's own cells. Early research shows that taking cannabidiol daily starting 7 days before bone marrow transplant and continuing for 30 days after transplant can extend the time it takes for a person to develop GVHD.
Foreign sources, China in particular, can produce hemp seed cheaply, but imported seed must be sterilized, and the delays this usually requires are detrimental. Seed that has been sterilized tends to go rancid quickly, and so it is imperative that fresh seed be available, a great advantage for domestic production. An additional extremely significant advantage that domestic producers have over foreign sources is organic production, which is important for the image desired by the hemp food market. Organic certification is much more reliable in North America than in the foreign countries that offer cheap seeds. Whereas China used to supply most of the hempseed used for food in North America, Canadian-grown seeds have taken over this market.
The pulp and paper industry based on wood has considered the use of hemp for pulp, but only on an experimental basis. Hemp’s long fibers could make paper more recyclable. Since virgin pulp is required for added strength in the recycling of paper, hemp pulp would allow for at least twice as many cycles as wood pulp. However, various analyses have concluded that the use of hemp for conventional paper pulp is not profitable (Fertig 1996).

The safety and risks of using CBD for dogs have not yet been researched. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved CBD and has not issued a dosing chart. Therefore, we do not know what size dosage would be toxic. Any medication or supplement carries the risk of a reaction. It is always advisable, when giving your dog something new, to start out with small amounts and then closely monitor the effects. And always check with your veterinarian first.


This non-greasy formula is a lightweight counterpart to all those heavy hemp salves and balms that you tend to see on the market, so much so that you could use this every day on your entire body without worries about staining your clothes. Along with the Colorado-grown CBD oil, it has a lotion base made with aloe vera leaf juice powder (good for antioxidants), lactic acid (good for exfoliation), and other reputable skincare ingredients. Keep this by your shower and use it while your skin is still moist, warm, and soft for the best results.
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep),[1] typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.[2] It is one of the fastest growing plants[3] and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago.[4] It can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed.[5]
Oils are hot in the beauty world. As a beauty editor, I’ve slathered everything short of butter onto my face: argan, coconut, rosehip, sandalwood, chia, neroli, calendula, mandarin, macadamia, rice bran, seabuckthorn, patchouli, grapefruit seed, sesame seed, soybean, sweet almond, pomegranate seed, lemon myrtle, sunflower seed—even extra virgin olive oil from my pantry when I was desperate. I’ve washed my face with oil-based cleansers, and dabbed expensive mixtures being sold as “face oils” onto my skin in hopes of achieving that Instagram-ready glow. Contrary to popular belief, the right oil is actually good for your face and won’t clog your pores. Your skin needs a reasonable amount of oil to do its business; as a matter of fact, if you scrub away all your natural face oil (as I was prone to do with rubbing alcohol as a frustrated and misguided pizza-faced teen), you may actually be prone to more breakouts as your skin tries to make up for the imbalance. As cannabis meets up with the mainstream beauty world, cannabidiol (CBD) oil may be the next big thing.
As I research more I am disgusted with how we have all been deceived. I feel confident now with being able to research things on our own, at any moment in time, we can begin to take back our world. In the early 30’s one of the great media conspiracies unfolded. Publisher William Hearst, Dupont, the petroleum interests, the cotton lobby, the bankers and some ignorant politicians lead a crusade to ban hemp to line their pockets. Hemp can revolutionize our society. Please research and pass on!
CBD was first discovered in 1940 by Roger Adams, a prominent organic chemist at the University of Illinois. Shortly thereafter, other scientists began testing isolated cannabinoids on lab animals; notably, Walter S. Loewe ran trials on mice and rabbits with the cannabinoids THC, CBD and CBN. He found that CBD produced no observable effects in the animals’ behavior while THC caused, what he called, a “central excitant action” in rabbits. Despite science’s movement forward, scientists were completely unaware of the cannabinoids’ chemical structure, so no one could tell which specific compound resulted in which effect.
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell continues to be ardently anti-marijuana, despite the success of these programs and the fact that 62% of Americans say recreational marijuana should be legal. Nevertheless, McConnell and Senate Republicans read the political tea leaves and will now recognize the important differences between marijuana and hemp. In doing so, they’re creating an exciting time for entrepreneurs, CBD advocates, and farmers across the country.
UNFORTUNATELY, WE ARE NOT ALLOWED TO TELL YOU! WE WISH WE COULD, NOT ONLY BECAUSE WE ARE INCREDIBLY PROUD OF OUR PRODUCTS, BUT ALSO BECAUSE WE GET EMAILS FROM PEOPLE ALL ACROSS THE COUNTRY TELLING US HOW GREEN ROADS HAS MADE A DIFFERENCE IN THEIR LIVES. HOWEVER, THE US FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CURRENTLY PROHIBITS ALL MANUFACTURERS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS FROM MAKING ANY CLAIMS ABOUT THE ABILITY OF THEIR PRODUCTS TO TREAT SPECIFIC HEALTH CONDITIONS. HEALTH CLAIMS ARE ONLY PERMITTED WHERE APPROVED BY THE FDA AND BASED ON ACCEPTED CLINICAL TRIALS. BECAUSE CBD IS RELATIVELY NEW TO THE MARKET, THE LENGTHY CLINICAL TRIAL PERIOD IS STILL IN PROCESS.

Tia has been Live Science's associate editor since 2017. Prior to that, Tia was a senior writer for the site, covering physics, archaeology and all things strange. Tia's work has appeared in Scientific American, Wired.com, and the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Tia grew up in Texas and has an undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Texas at Austin, a master's degree in bioengineering from the University of Washington and a graduate certificate in science writing from the University of California Santa Cruz. When she's not editing stories, Tia enjoys reading dystopian fiction and hiking.
Given CBD’s reputation as a popular, artisanal remedy, one would think that Epidiolex would command a lot of “off label” attention. After all, physicians often prescribe pharmaceuticals off label to treat conditions that were not the actual focus of clinical trials. But the costly price tag for Epidiolex (more than $30,000 annually) precludes off label prescribing as well as affordable access for tens of millions of Americans without health insurance.
While the FDA has prevented any wide scale studies on the effectiveness of phytocannabinoid from being performed in the US, international studies suggest that it may help with a whole range of health conditions, such as anxiety, seizures, convulsions, inflammation, chronic pain, and more. The Innovet team has seen, through personal experiences and countless customer success stories, the lifesaving effects of phytocannabinoid oil.
In 2015, almost half of the people in the United States had tried marijuana, 12% had used it in the past year, and 7.3% had used it in the past month.[31] In 2014, daily marijuana use amongst US college students had reached its highest level since records began in 1980, rising from 3.5% in 2007 to 5.9% in 2014 and had surpassed daily cigarette use.[251]
Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries. This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species.[54] One widely applied criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups."[55] Populations that are physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are sometimes considered to be separate species.[55] Physiological barriers to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis, and plants from widely divergent sources are interfertile.[43] However, physical barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might have enabled Cannabis gene pools to diverge before the onset of human intervention, resulting in speciation.[56] It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species.[57][58][59]
When purchasing CBD oil, you also want to make sure that you know from where it is sourced. We source all of our CBD oil from soil rich hemp farms in Kentucky, Colorado, and Scandinavia. Also, the best CBD oil is extracted with a process called supercritical CO2 extraction which retains all of the naturally occurring beneficial molecules found in the hemp plant.
Acute effects may include anxiety and panic, impaired attention and memory, an increased risk of psychotic symptoms, [b] the inability to think clearly, and an increased risk of accidents.[69][70][71] Cannabis impaired a person's driving ability, and THC was the illicit drug most frequently found in the blood of drivers who have been involved in vehicle crashes. Those with THC in their system were from three to seven times more likely to be the cause of the accident than those who had not used either cannabis or alcohol, although its role is not necessarily causal because THC stays in the bloodstream for days to weeks after intoxication.[72][73][c]
By 1938, Popular Mechanics called hemp the “Billion Dollar Crop,”1 praising its potential to produce 25,000 different products, as high as $192 billion in today’s market and capable of producing four times the paper per acre than trees. Farmers from the Midwest to the East coast harvested more than 150,000 acres for the war’s Hemp for Victory Program, implemented by the USDA from 1942 through 1946, but rumblings by the competition had already started.
Cannabidiol is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth or sprayed under the tongue appropriately. Cannabidiol in doses of up to 300 mg daily have been taken by mouth safely for up to 6 months. Higher doses of 1200-1500 mg daily have been taken by mouth safely for up to 4 weeks. A prescription cannabidiol product (Epidiolex) is approved to be taken by mouth in doses of up to 10-20 mg/kg daily. Cannabidiol sprays that are applied under the tongue have been used in doses of 2.5 mg for up to 2 weeks.
Finding cultivars suited to local conditions is a key to success. Hemp prefers warm growing conditions, and the best European fiber strains are photoperiodically adapted to flowering in southern Europe, which provides seasons of at least 4 months for fiber, and 5.5 months for seed production. Asian land races are similarly adapted to long seasons. In Canada, many of the available cultivars flower too late in the season for fiber production, and the same may be predicted for the northern US. Fiber production should also be governed by availability of moisture throughout the season, and the need for high humidity in the late summer and fall for retting, so that large areas of the interior and west of North America are not adapted to growing fiber hemp. The US Corn Belt has traditionally been considered to be best for fiber hemp. There are very few cultivars dedicated to oilseed production (such as ‘Finola’ and ‘Anka’) or that at least are known to produce good oilseed crops (such as ‘Fasamo’ and ‘Uniko-B’). Oilseed production was a specialty of the USSR, and there is some likelihood that northern regions of North America may find short-season, short-stature oilseed cultivars ideal.
Our reviews also include the ingredients and a description of the scent and texture of each CBD topical. We tried to remain neutral in our descriptions of each product, since each consumer’s experience is subjective. These are all high-quality CBD creams, balms and salves, but you may find you prefer one scent over another. You might love or hate menthol. Some people prefer a light texture, while other buyers are looking for CBD topicals to use in a massage.

In Peru the central business district is San Isidro, in Lima, which hosts the majority of Peru's financial industry headquarters.[8] Although still a largely residential district, the commercial and business activity located in or in the vicinity of the area defined by avenues Camino Real, Javier Prado Este, República de Panamá and Aramburú is highly regarded as Peru's financial and corporate heart.[9][10] It has a permanent population of around 63,000 inhabitants[11] and, during weekday business hours, a floating population that exceeds 700,000 daily commuters from other districts of Lima.[12] San Isidro is served by three stations of El Metropolitano, Lima's bus rapid transit system: Estación Javier Prado, Estación Canaval y Moreyra (with over 16,000 daily passengers)[13][14] and Estación Aramburú.


Preliminary work in Germany (noted in Karus and Leson 1994) suggested that hemp could be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals, while the fiber remained virtually free of the metals. Kozlowski et al. (1995) observed that hemp grew very well on copper-contaminated soil in Poland (although seeds absorbed high levels of copper). Baraniecki (1997) found similar results. Mölleken et al. (1997) studied effects of high concentration of salts of copper, chromium, and zinc on hemp, and demonstrated that some hemp cultivars have potential application to growth in contaminated soils. It would seem unwise to grow hemp as an oilseed on contaminated soils, but such a habitat might be suitable for a fiber or biomass crop. The possibility of using hemp for bioremediation deserves additional study.
Several of the cannabinoids are reputed to have medicinal potential: THC for glaucoma, spasticity from spinal injury or multiple sclerosis, pain, inflammation, insomnia, and asthma; CBD for some psychological problems. The Netherlands firm HortaPharm developed strains of Cannabis rich in particular cannabinoids. The British firm G.W. Pharmaceuticals acquired proprietary access to these for medicinal purposes, and is developing medicinal marijuana. In the US, NIH (National Institute of Health) has a program of research into medicinal marijuana, and has supplied a handful of individuals for years with maintenance samples for medical usage. The American Drug Enforcement Administration is hostile to the medicinal use of Cannabis, and for decades research on medicinal properties of Cannabis in the US has been in an extremely inhospitable climate, except for projects and researchers concerned with curbing drug abuse. Synthetic preparations of THC—dronabinol (Marinol®) and nabilone (Cesamet®)—are permitted in some cases, but are expensive and widely considered to be less effective than simply smoking preparations of marijuana. Relatively little material needs to be cultivated for medicinal purposes (Small 1971), although security considerations considerably inflate costs. The potential as a “new crop” for medicinal cannabinoid uses is therefore limited. However, the added-value potential in the form of proprietary drug derivatives and drug-delivery systems is huge. The medicinal efficacy of Cannabis is extremely controversial, and regrettably is often confounded with the issue of balancing harm and liberty concerning the proscriptions against recreational use of marijuana. This paper is principally concerned with the industrial uses of Cannabis. In this context, the chief significance of medicinal Cannabis is that, like the issue of recreational use, it has made it very difficult to rationally consider the development of industrial hemp in North America for purposes that everyone should agree are not harmful.
The main difference between the two is in its chemical composition, specifically in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is the chemical responsible marijuana’s psychological effects.An average batch of marijuana contains anywhere from 5-20% THC content. Some premium marijuana can have up to 25-30% THC. Hemp, on the other hand, has a max THC level of 0.3%, essentially making it impossible to feel any psychoactive effect or get a “high”. This threshold is heavily regulated in other countries that have legalized hemp.Hemp also has high cannabidiol (CBD) content that acts as THC’s antagonist, essentially making the minimal amount of THC useless.
Both Bonn-Miller and Ward stress that it's up to the consumer to be well-educated about the material they're purchasing and the research that's out there. "The companies that are creating [cannabis oils] are offering lots of claims about its use that are not necessarily substantiated by any research," Bonn-Miller said. So "I think there needs to be, from a consumer standpoint, a lot of vigilance," he added.

Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 1 Mar 2019), Cerner Multum™ (updated 1 Mar 2019), Wolters Kluwer™ (updated 28 Feb 2019) and others. Refer to our editorial policy for content sources and attributions.
Scientists at the Cajal Institute used animal models and cell cultures to find that Cannabidiol reversed inflammatory responses and served as durable protection from the effects of multiple sclerosis. Mice with 10 days of CBD oil treatment had superior motor skills and showed progression in their condition. Using this information, researchers concluded that CBD has the potential ability to reduce various aspects of MS.
Due to the influence of big pharma,the FDA has refused (until recently) to investigate the benefits of phytocannabinoid oil for humans or pets. We are not allowed to say or imply that phytocannabinoid has any medical benefits, however the 1st Amendment also protects our right to tell you about our experiences with phytocannabinoid helping our own pets, and the fact that there have been more than 1500 clinical studies regarding the effectiveness of phytocannabinoids.The owners and staff of Innovet believe, but cannot legally claim or imply, that countless dogs and cats have used phytocannabinoid oils for many conditions.
A recent study published in The International Journal of Neurophamacologypoints to cannabidiol (CBD) as a cause of neurogenesis in the brain; specifically in the Hippocampus, an area typically associated with conscious memory and navigation. However, the researchers believe that CBD’s anxiety relief may be due to this neurogenesis in the brain. You can read our full article on the study here.
At an epidemiological level, a dose response relationship exists between cannabis use and increased risk of psychosis[127][128][129] and earlier onset of psychosis.[130] Although the epidemiological association is robust, evidence to prove a causal relationship is lacking.[131] But a biological causal pathway is plausible, especially if there is a genetic predisposition to mental illness, in which case cannabis may be a trigger.[132][better source needed]
Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug. The hemp plant Cannabis sativa, from which marijuana grows throughout the world, flourishes in most temperate and tropical regions. Marijuana is commonly ingested by smoking, which increases the bioavailability of the primary psychoactive constituent, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Musty et al., 1995; Hall and Solowij, 1998). Inhalation of marijuana smoke produces euphoria, signs of increased sympathetic nervous system activity, and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity (Schwartz, 1987). At high doses, however, sympathetic activity is inhibited and parasympathetic activity is increased, leading to bradycardia and hypotension. Reversible ECG abnormalities have been reported, as have increases in supraventricular and ventricular ectopic activity (Ghuran and Nolan, 2000). The clinical relevance of this finding is unclear.
Until recent times, the cultivation of hemp primarily as an oilseed was largely unknown, except in Russia. Today, it is difficult to reconstruct the type of plant that was grown there as an oilseed, because such cultivation has essentially been abandoned. Oilseed hemp cultivars in the modern sense were not available until very recently, but some land races certainly were grown specifically for seeds in Russia. Dewey (1914) gave the following information: “The short oil-seed hemp with slender stems, about 30 inches high, bearing compact clusters of seeds and maturing in 60 to 90 days, is of little value for fiber production, but the experimental plants, grown from seed imported from Russia, indicate that it may be valuable as an oil-seed crop to be harvested and threshed in the same manner as oil-seed flax.” Most hemp oilseed in Europe is currently obtained from so-called “dual usage” plants (employed for harvest of both stem fiber and seeds, from the same plants). Of the European dual-usage cultivars, ‘Uniko B’ and ‘Fasamo’ are particularly suited to being grown as oilseeds. Very recently, cultivars have been bred specifically for oilseed production. These include ‘Finola,’ formerly known as ‘Fin-314’ (Fig. 6) and ‘Anka’ (Fig. 7), which are relatively short, little-branched, mature early in north-temperate regions, and are ideal for high-density planting and harvest with conventional equipment. Dewey (1914) noted that a Turkish narcotic type of land race called “Smyrna” was commonly used in the early 20th century in the US to produce birdseed, because (like most narcotic types of Cannabis) it is densely branched, producing many flowers, hence seeds. While oilseed land races in northern Russia would have been short, early-maturing plants in view of the short growing season, in more southern areas oilseed landraces likely had moderate height, and were spaced more widely to allow abundant branching and seed production to develop. Until Canada replaced China in 1998 as a source of imported seeds for the US, most seeds used for various purposes in the US were sterilized and imported from China. Indeed, China remains the largest producer of hempseed. We have grown Chinese hemp land races, and these were short, branched, adapted to a very long growing season (i.e. they come into flower very slowly in response to photoperiodic induction of short days in the fall), and altogether they were rather reminiscent of Dewey’s description of Smyrna. Although similar in appearance to narcotic strains of C. sativa, the Chinese land races we grew were in fact low in intoxicating constituents, and it may well be that what Dewey thought was a narcotic strain was not. Although some forms of C. sativa have quite large seeds, until recently oilseed forms appear to have been mainly selected for a heavy yield of seeds, usually recognizable by abundant branching. Such forms are typically grown at lower densities than hemp grown only for fiber, as this promotes branching, although it should be understood that the genetic propensity for branching has been selected. Percentage or quality of oil in the seeds does not appear to have been important in the past, although selection for these traits is now being conducted. Most significantly, modern selection is occurring with regard to mechanized harvesting, particularly the ability to grow in high density as single-headed stalks with very short branches bearing considerable seed.
I work at Earthbound Trading Company, therefore discovering the CBD line. By far, one of my favorite products in our store! I had a nurse come in with chronic back pain and fibromyalgia. I recommended the CBD intensive cream. At a later date, she returned to the store to let me know that we sold her a miracle in a jar. She said that for the first time in years she was the most relaxed at work that she has ever been since she started nursing. She applied it while at work and said that she was pain free for 10 out of her 12 hour shift! I, myself, have been having some sharp, shooting back pain the last two weeks. The intensive cream has worked wonders! I applied it at one in the afternoon, and I was pain free for 12 hours! Plus, you can literally feel it working. Such an amazing product. You definitely can’t find that kind of pain relief over the counter or in your local pharmacy.

A mixture of fiberglass, hemp fiber, kenaf, and flax has been used since 2002 to make composite panels for automobiles.[37] The choice of which bast fiber to use is primarily based on cost and availability. Various car makers are beginning to use hemp in their cars, including Audi, BMW, Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda, Iveco, Lotus, Mercedes, Mitsubishi, Porsche, Saturn, Volkswagen[38] and Volvo. For example, the Lotus Eco Elise[39] and the Mercedes C-Class both contain hemp (up to 20 kg in each car in the case of the latter).[40]
The woody core (hurds, sometimes called shives) of hemp makes remarkably good animal bedding (Fig. 28, 29). The hurds are sometimes molded into small pellets for bedding applications (Fig. 30). Such appears to be unsurpassed for horse bedding, and also make an excellent litter for cats and other pets (Fig. 31). The hurds can absorb up to five times their weight in moisture (typically 50% higher than wood shavings), do not produce dust (following initial dust removal), and are easily composted. Hemp bedding is especially suited to horses allergic to straw. In Europe, the animal bedding market is not considered important (Karus et al. 2000), but in North America there are insufficient hemp hurds available to meet market demand.

The CBD is often also the "city centre" or "downtown", but this is also often not the case. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in New York City and in the world; yet Lower Manhattan, commonly called Downtown Manhattan, represents the second largest distinct CBD in New York City and is geographically situated south of Midtown. For example, London's "city centre" is usually regarded as encompassing the historic City of London and the mediaeval City of Westminster, whereas the City of London and the transformed Docklands area are regarded as its two CBDs. Mexico City also has a historic city centre, the colonial-era Centro Histórico, along with two CBDs: the mid-late 20th century Paseo de la Reforma - Polanco, and the new Santa Fe.


In Europe and Asia, hemp farming has been conducted for millennia. Although most countries ceased growing hemp after the second word war, some didn’t, including France, China, Russia, and Hungary, so that essential knowledge of how to grow and process hemp was maintained. When commercial hemp cultivation resumed in Canada in 1997, many farmers undertook to grow the crop without appreciating its suitability for their situation, or for the hazards of an undeveloped market. Hemp was often grown on farms with marginal incomes in the hopes that it was a savior from a downward financial spiral. The myth that hemp is a wonder crop that can be grown on any soil led some to cultivate on soils with a history of producing poor crops; of course, a poor crop was the result.
×