As part of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, or the 2018 Farm Bill, signed by Republican President Donald Trump, the Hemp Farming Act of 2018 removed hemp (with less than 0.3% THC) from Schedule I, the most restrictive classification of controlled substances that are considered highly prone to abuse and not to have any medicinal benefit. This move allowed for cultivation and distribution of hemp as a legal agricultural product. Under the Hemp Farming Act, hemp cultivation is no longer limited to state departments and universities. In addition, the act allows hemp farmers rights to water, crop insurance, and federal agricultural grants, as well as legal access to national banking. Hemp may also be transported across state lines.   
Cutting-edge science has shown that the endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in nearly all pathological conditions. Thus, it stands to reason that “modulating endocannabinoid system activity may have therapeutic potential in almost all diseases affecting humans,” as Pal Pacher and George Kunos, scientists with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), suggested in a 2014 publication.
Kyle Wright is a 31-year old from New York who was used to living in pain brought on by decades-old sports injuries contended with shoulder and backaches triggered by mild scoliosis. His life changed at a street fair in Denver when he was offered a sample of CBD lotion and was left amazed at how effective it was in treating his pain. He says that about 15 minutes after applying the lotion, it felt as though the tension had evaporated through his skin.

The alternative term city centre is used in United Kingdom and Ireland. In British-influenced countries, such as the Commonwealth realms, former British territories, also use many of the same terms, but also have many characteristics of British cities. In the UK, Australia and South Africa, the term is often just shortened to "city", as in "going to the city"; it is often also called "town" ("going (in)to town", "going up town", or "going down town"). One exception is in London where "the City" specifically refers to the City of London (one of the two main financial districts), rather than to any other part of London.


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Executives from Canopy Growth CGC, +2.31% WEED, +2.68%  and rival Aurora Cannabis Inc. ACB, +12.19% ACB, +12.50%  both discussed their hemp operations on September-quarter earnings calls that included disappointing results related to early recreational pot sales. Aurora declined to comment on the latest developments and Canopy did not make executives available by the time of publication.
Industrial Hemp, also known as “hemp” and the proper botanical name is "Cannabis Sativa L.," provides many of the raw materials we use as a society to function such as Hemp foods, oils from hemp, hemp plastics, building materials made from hemp, insulation & concrete, hemp paper, and other hemp composites, all available today! And yes, the list goes on and on. Plus, Hemp is both Eco-friendly and Renewable. Hemp is one of the fastest growing plants in the world producing about 4 tons of dry product per acre per year. Hemp was one of the first plants to be processed and used by humans making the history of hemp over 12,000 years old! Hemp Building materials are becoming more and more known and available as well! Industrial hemp is a great tool, to learn more and become active by using hemp products! What is hemp?

Breeding for low THC cultivars in Europe has been reviewed by Bócsa (1998), Bócsa and Karus (1998), and Virovets (1996). Some researchers have claimed to have produced essentially THC-free strains, although at present no commercial cultivar seems to be 100% free of THC. THC content has proven to be more easily reduced in monoecious than in dioecious varieties. It should be possible to select THC-free strains, and there has been speculation that genetic engineering could be helpful in this regard. As a strategic economic and political tactic, France has been attempting for several years to have the European Union (EU) adopt legislation forbidding the cultivation of industrial hemp cultivars with more than 0.1% THC, which would mean that primarily French varieties would have to be cultivated in Europe. However, the Canadian government has found that some French material has proven to be excessively high in THC.
The health consequences of cannabis use in developing countries are largely unknown beacuse of limited and non-systematic research, but there is no reason a priori to expect that biological effects on individuals in these populations would be substantially different to what has been observed in developed countries. However, other consequences might be different given the cultural and social differences between countries.
But even though it's infiltrating pretty much every corner of the wellness world (hi, vegan CBD brownies!) many people still find CBD a little confusing—especially when it comes to figuring out the right way to use it and how to make sure the stuff you're buying is, you know, actually legit. Below, we asked experts to answer the most pressing questions about CBD.
So-called “pure hybrids,” while oxymoronic in name, indicate marijuana strains that are believed to offer a perfect blend or balance of sativa’s energizing and indica’s sedating effects. Other hybrid strains of cannabis tend to place the emphasis on one end of the spectrum or the other. These are called “sativa-dominant” or “indica-dominant,” accordingly.
The confusion compounds when one realizes that in today’s popular lexicon, the terms indica, sativa, and hybrid tend to indicate a set of effects, rather than the taxonomy of a particular strain. But that’s just as well. Most marijuana strains today, especially those under commercial cultivation, are genetic hybrids. Only a handful of pure, or “landrace” cannabis strains are in circulation.

The ointment is made from infusing high-quality cannabis flowers in some kind of quality oil—coconut or olive typically—which extracts the active compounds, either CBD, THC, or both depending on the type of hemp used. This oil is then blended with other therapeutic herbs, like arnica or lemongrass essential oils, that are well-known pain relievers.
Protein. Hemp seeds contain 25%–30% protein, with a reasonably complete amino acid spectrum. About two thirds of hempseed protein is edestin. All eight amino acids essential in the human diet are present, as well as others. Although the protein content is smaller than that of soybean, it is much higher than in grains like wheat, rye, maize, oat, and barley. As noted above, the oilcake remaining after oil is expressed from the seeds is a very nutritious feed supplement for livestock, but it can also be used for production of a high-protein flour.
Feminized cannabis seeds are designed to produce only female plants.Usually, a cannabis seed can develop into a male or female plant; the entire process is determined by the sex expressing X and Y chromosomes. "Feminization" is a process of conditioning female plants to obtain male pollen needed for seed production.A plant with two X chromosomes will be female 99% of the time, while regular cannabis seeds (XY genetic set) sometimes have a tendency to produce more male than female individuals.
And the final nail in industrial hemp’s proverbial coffin: Federal law in the United States prohibits the use of hemp leaves and flowers to make drug products. That said, isolating CBD nullifies these distinctions, rendering its source irrelevant as CBD isolate contains nothing but CBD. In this case, the differences between industrial hemp and whole-plant marijuana are far less significant.
I was in a car accident several years ago I have tried everything to help relieve the pain in my back due to the accident nothing has worked! I picked this up thinking I would give it a shot and fell in love it worked wonders and everyone in my house now uses this from my diabetic son to my mother. Thank you for actually having a product that does what it says!! I feel like the old me now
I’m grateful to have a fair size group of people that get their products through me. I’m also grateful to be involved in the substance abuse industry. The people that have tried the Creams are 1000% satisfied with the quick and long lasting relief they get. Many are cutting back and even stopping use of Opiods. I give it a 50/5 stars!!! It is 10x better than I could have ever imagined.
President Donald Trump signed the 2018 farm bill on Thursday afternoon, which legalized hemp — a variety of cannabis that does not produce the psychoactive component of marijuana — paving the way to legitimacy for an agricultural sector that has been operating on the fringe of the law. Industrial hemp has made investors and executives swoon because of the potential multibillion-dollar market for cannabidiol, or CBD, a non-psychoactive compound that has started to turn up in beverages, health products and pet snacks, among other products.
At an epidemiological level, a dose response relationship exists between cannabis use and increased risk of psychosis[127][128][129] and earlier onset of psychosis.[130] Although the epidemiological association is robust, evidence to prove a causal relationship is lacking.[131] But a biological causal pathway is plausible, especially if there is a genetic predisposition to mental illness, in which case cannabis may be a trigger.[132][better source needed]
Today, you’ll find nutty-tasting (hull-less) hemp seeds and their oils baked in breads, cookies, and cakes, blended in smoothies, or tossed into quinoa and pasta dishes, burgers, pizza, vegetables sautés, soups, salads, oatmeal, yogurt, trail mix, and salad dressings. It’s a niche market, with a growing number of specialty outlets due to a growing understanding of this food’s nutritional benefits.
The alternative term city centre is used in United Kingdom and Ireland. In British-influenced countries, such as the Commonwealth realms, former British territories, also use many of the same terms, but also have many characteristics of British cities. In the UK, Australia and South Africa, the term is often just shortened to "city", as in "going to the city"; it is often also called "town" ("going (in)to town", "going up town", or "going down town"). One exception is in London where "the City" specifically refers to the City of London (one of the two main financial districts), rather than to any other part of London.

Please do not ask emergency or other specific medical questions about your pets in the blog comments. As an online informational resource, Preventive Vet is unable to and does not provide specific medical advice or counseling. A thorough physical exam, patient history, and an established veterinary-patient-client relationship is required to provide specific medical advice. If you are worried that your pet is having an emergency or if you have specific medical questions related to your pet’s current or chronic medical conditions, please contact or visit your veterinarian, an animal-specific poison control hotline, or your local emergency veterinary care center.


The environment in which hemp and marijuana are grown is strikingly different. Hemp is grown closely together (as close as 4 inches apart) and are typically grown in large multi-acre plots. It can also grow in variety of climates and its growth cycle is 108-120 days. Unlike hemp, marijuana requires a carefully controlled, warm, and humid atmostphere for proper growth. Its growth cycle only 60-90 days. Medical cannabis also cannot be grown too close to each other. They are typically grown 6 feet apart. If, somehow, marijuana grows among (or close to) a hemp field, the hemp’s pollen would immediateately ruin the marijuana crop, diluting marijuana’s psychoactivity.

• In 2016, Dr. Stephanie McGrath, neurologist and assistant professor at Colorado State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, completed a preliminary pharmacokinetic (what happens to a drug in the body) and safety study on CBD. Following this study, Dr. McGrath began two pilot studies involving owner-enrolled dogs with poorly controlled epilepsy and painful osteoarthritis. These have now ended and results on the epilepsy study are scheduled for publication in the Canadian Veterinary Journal later this year. One of its big-picture findings: 89 percent of dogs who received CBD had a reduction in the frequency of seizures. (McGrath and her team are now starting work on a larger epilepsy-focused project.)
Until then, when you go shopping for tincture or “pet-friendly” cannabis or hemp products, just don’t hold back when asking about ingredient sources, any available testing on the cannabis material, and where it was grown/produced. This intersection of the FDA, the DEA, conflicting state laws and the equally-conflicted veterinary community means that a lot of medical claims and questionable synthetic formulas have been thrown around recklessly. We all just want our pets to feel good–make sure they’re getting the real deal.
There are two possible exceptions to this. The first is that some people, for unknown reasons, just react differently to CBD. According to Dr. Chin, about 5% of people say they feel altered after taking CBD. "Usually they're the same people who have side effects from Advil or Tylenol," she says. You never know how your body will react to any new supplement, so when taking CBD for the first time, do so safely under supervision.
The owner had a large acreage backed up into National Forest and multiple projects dotting the land to turn it into his own little sanctuary. We had built several outhouses, completely by hand. Cut the trees one by one and stripped the bark ourselves. We had to make these extra accommodations for the trimmers that would be coming in for the season. There was a cobb house, to be used mainly as a dark retreat center being erected on top of the hill. Many travelers from all over the world had come to help build it.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Boggs, Douglas L; Nguyen, Jacques D; Morgenson, Daralyn; Taffe, Michael A; Ranganathan, Mohini (6 September 2017). "Clinical and preclinical evidence for functional interactions of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol". Neuropsychopharmacology. 43 (1): 142–154. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.209. ISSN 0893-133X. PMC 5719112. PMID 28875990.
After the Restoration of Independence in 1640, in order to recover the ailing Portuguese naval fleet, were encouraged its cultivation as the Royal Decree of D. John IV in 1656. At that time its cultivation was carried out in Trás-os-Montes, Zone Tower Moncorvo, more precisely in Vilariça Valley, fertile land for any crop irrigation, and a very large area, flat and very fertile culture still wide until the last century grew up tobacco, a plant that needs a large space to expand and grow, the area lies in the valley of Serra de Bornes.[citation needed]
The safety and risks of using CBD for dogs have not yet been researched. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved CBD and has not issued a dosing chart. Therefore, we do not know what size dosage would be toxic. Any medication or supplement carries the risk of a reaction. It is always advisable, when giving your dog something new, to start out with small amounts and then closely monitor the effects. And always check with your veterinarian first.

Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of species.[39] Many researchers have suggested that sex in Cannabis is determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors.[27] Ainsworth reviews that treatment with auxin and ethylene have feminizing effects, and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have masculinizing effects.[15] It has been reported that sex can be reversed in Cannabis using chemical treatment.[40] A PCR-based method for the detection of female-associated DNA polymorphisms by genotyping has been developed.[41]
Dana Scott is the Founder and CEO of Dogs Naturally Magazine. She also breeds award winning Labrador Retrievers under the Fallriver prefix. Dana has been a raw feeding, natural rearing breeder since the 90's and is a sought after speaker and outspoken advocate for natural health care for dogs and people. Dana works tirelessly to educate pet owners so they can influence veterinary medicine and change current vaccine, food and preventive health practices. Visit Dana's Labradors at Fallriver Labs
Use of industrial hemp plant and its cultivation was commonplace until the 1900s, when it was associated with its genetic sibling a.k.a. Drug-Type Cannabis species (which contain higher levels of psychoactive THC). Influential groups misconstrued hemp as a dangerous "drug", even though it is not a 'drug' and it has the potential to be a sustainable and profitable alternative crop.[citation needed][neutrality is disputed]
Via CB1 receptor activation, THC indirectly increases dopamine release and produces psychotropic effects.[146] Cannabidiol (CBD) also acts as an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors.[147] THC also potentiates the effects of the glycine receptors.[148] It is unknown if or how these actions contribute to the effects of cannabis.[149]
CBD is one of over 100+ compounds found in cannabis that belong to a class of molecules called cannabinoids. Of these compounds, CBD and THC are usually present in the highest concentrations, and are therefore the most recognized and studied. We at CBD Crew are using cannabis to create our strains, not hemp. All our genetics will have traces of all canabinoids found naturally in the plants genetics, as we believe in the entourage effect of  the plant to be the most effective for most patients.
^ Jump up to: a b c Whiting, PF; Wolff, RF; Deshpande, S; Di Nisio, M; Duffy, S; Hernandez, AV; Keurentjes, JC; Lang, S; Misso, K; Ryder, S; Schmidlkofer, S; Westwood, M; Kleijnen, J (23 June 2015). "Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis" (PDF). JAMA. 313 (24): 2456–2473. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.6358. hdl:10757/558499. PMID 26103030.
^ Klein C, Karanges E, Spiro A, Wong A, Spencer J, Huynh T, Gunasekaran N, Karl T, Long LE, Huang XF, Liu K, Arnold JC, McGregor IS (November 2011). "Cannabidiol potentiates Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) behavioural effects and alters THC pharmacokinetics during acute and chronic treatment in adolescent rats". Psychopharmacology. 218 (2): 443–457. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2342-0. PMID 21667074.
Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus.[202] It was used by Muslims in various Sufi orders as early as the Mamluk period, for example by the Qalandars.[203] Smoking pipes uncovered in Ethiopia and carbon-dated to around c. AD 1320 were found to have traces of cannabis.[204]
C.S. Lewis said “badness is only spoiled goodness.” This may be an apt quote regarding public perception. It’s true that hemp’s scientific name is the same as that other Cannabis sativa, marijuana, but its constituents are different. The three cannabis plants have three different species: Sativa, used for industrial fibers, oils, food, drugs and medicine; Indica, to induce sleep; and Ruderalis, for food production. Hemp seeds contain high amounts of essential fatty acids – more than any fish and most fish oil supplements. The oil has linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and at least 20 amino acids. Altogether, hemp supplies innumerable health benefits. After decades of misunderstanding, scientists have again been tapping the amazing potential of this versatile plant.
Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries. This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species.[54] One widely applied criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups."[55] Populations that are physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are sometimes considered to be separate species.[55] Physiological barriers to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis, and plants from widely divergent sources are interfertile.[43] However, physical barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might have enabled Cannabis gene pools to diverge before the onset of human intervention, resulting in speciation.[56] It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species.[57][58][59]
No, absolutely not. We source exclusively from 100% organic farms, so this is never an issue. Even though none of our ingredients have ever been exposed to pesticides, we still routinely have our phytocannabinoid oil tested by a third party for potency and the presence of any toxins/pesticides. You can see the results on the certificate of analysis found on our website.
Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present.[26] At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination. The X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925.[29] Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's interpretation,[30] and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in hemp, concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions.[27]
CBD (cannabidiol) is a compound found in cannabis and hemp. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) can also be found in cannabis. It’s this compound that gives marijuana its psychoactive properties. Most CBD oils are just that … the beneficial CBD without the THC. And they typically come from hemp, not marijuana. In short, your dog won’t get “high” from CBD oil … he’ll get the relaxation without the intoxication.

• In 2016, Dr. Stephanie McGrath, neurologist and assistant professor at Colorado State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, completed a preliminary pharmacokinetic (what happens to a drug in the body) and safety study on CBD. Following this study, Dr. McGrath began two pilot studies involving owner-enrolled dogs with poorly controlled epilepsy and painful osteoarthritis. These have now ended and results on the epilepsy study are scheduled for publication in the Canadian Veterinary Journal later this year. One of its big-picture findings: 89 percent of dogs who received CBD had a reduction in the frequency of seizures. (McGrath and her team are now starting work on a larger epilepsy-focused project.)
Choosing CBD products isn’t as simple as picking something off the dispensary shelf and then walking out the door. Consumers should be aware that a handful of hemp products on the market pay lip service to governmental regulations by labeling themselves as hemp, despite containing cannabinoids and terpenoids. Some CBD products are completely devoid of cannabinoids including CBD, despite package labeling. The FDA purchased a number of CBD products online in 2015 and 2016 to test them for the presence of CBD and other cannabinoids. They found that the amount of CBD these products claimed on their labels was markedly inaccurate; some didn’t even contain CBD.
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In a small study published in the journal JCI Insight in 2017, researchers observed that CBD may help prevent stress-related changes in blood pressure. For the study, nine healthy male volunteers took a single dose of either CBD or placebo. Compared to those given the placebo, those treated with CBD had lower blood pressure both before and after experiencing a stressful event.

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